Build Now, or prudent to wait ?
I wish to build, and unsure what has solid footing, not able to understand where to begin.
Quick research pointed me to County government, which preceded state government. My state was "incorporated" long after 1776, so I worked to get back towards The "Prime". I can not find "One People's Public Trust 1776" (using many name variants), except the mention of it in legal filings by US, via OPPT Trustees.
Searching for the 'line of authority' back to the "Prime" 1776 date, I find that even the Articles of Confederation were not finalized that year, nor the Declaration of Independence or US Constitution.
I wish to push my efforts to remove fluoride, challenge village and county property taxes, and initiate a 'required' bootstrap of local governments, based first on a county basis and smaller.
- What can we read that tells us of the original trust, is this unimportant ?
- Many/most states formed constitutions long after 1776, are they therefore vacant shells ?
- If UCC is a body of corporate bylaws, how are they preserved if the body that drafted them is now 'certified' as illegitimate, what does remain ?
- Is the 'county level of people' a logical place to begin, or is it better to target village/city or state as a starting organizational structure ?
- Is it better to watch, study, learn for now as others continue to work to change salient legal aspects
- Below is a summary of Wikipedia level answers that I chased back towards Prime, is this required or irrelevant today ?
Thanks most kindly, Vince
Counties were among the earliest units of local government established in the Thirteen Colonies that would become the United States. Virginia created the first counties in order to ease the administrative workload in Jamestown. The House of Burgesses divided the colony first into four "incorporations" in 1617 and finally into eight shires (or counties) in 1634: James City, Henrico, Charles City, Charles River, Warrosquyoake, Accomac, Elizabeth City, and Warwick River. America's oldest intact county court records can be found at Eastville, Virginia, in Northampton (originally Accomac) County, dating to 1632. Maryland established its first county, St. Mary's, in 1637, and Massachusetts followed in 1643. Pennsylvania and New York delegated significant power and responsibility from state government to county governments, and thereby established a pattern for most of the United States, although counties remained relatively weak in New England. The most recent county in the United States is Broomfield County, Colorado, a consolidated city-county, which came into existence on November 15, 2001.
County Government in Wisconsin
History & Background
County government is the oldest form of local government in Wisconsin. The first counties were formed in 1818, before statehood, during the time the area was still part of the Michigan Territory. Because of the distance between the territorial seat of Detroit and what is now Wisconsin, the territorial governor created three counties within portions of the area. The counties were Crawford County in the west, Brown County in the northeast, and Michilimackinac County in the far north and what is now the Upper Peninsula of Michigan. In 1829, population increases in southwest Wisconsin resulting from extensive lead mining led to the designation of a fourth county called Iowa. Counties primarily performed law enforcement and taxing functions for the territorial government, including providing sheriffs, judges, assessors, tax collectors and court clerks.
After statehood was granted by Congress in 1848, Wisconsin’s new constitution called for the “establishment of but one system of town and county government, which shall be nearly uniform as practicable” (Article IV, Sec. 23). Differences over the form or structure county government could take soon emerged. Some counties chose a small governing body (3-5 members) of officials elected countywide called “commissioners.” In this form of government, the county serves as the major provider of local government services. This form of government was popular in eastern and mid-west states like Pennsylvania, Ohio and Michigan. Other counties opted for a larger governing body of “supervisors” who represented specific towns, villages and cities within the county boundaries. Under this unit representation system, the county primarily provided state administrative services such as tax collection, courts and sheriff-patrol while the towns, cities and villages served as the providers of purely local services such as road maintenance, building inspections, and fire protection. After 1870, a series of court challenges to the “uniformity clause”, caused the supervisor, or unit system, to become the standard form for all Wisconsin counties.
The Territory of Wisconsin was an organized incorporated territory of the United States that existed from July 3, 1836, until May 29, 1848, when an eastern portion of the territory was admitted to the Union as the State of Wisconsin. Belmont was initially chosen as the capital of the territory, but this was changed in October 1836 to the current capital of Madison.
The area that would later be part of the second—and by far the longest lasting—incarnation of the Wisconsin Territory was originally part of the Northwest Territory. It was later included with the Indiana Territory when this was formed in 1800. In 1809, it became part of the Illinois Territory; then, when Illinois was about to become a state in 1818, this area was joined to the Michigan Territory. Then, the Wisconsin Territory was split off from Michigan Territory in 1836 as the state of Michigan prepared for statehood.
However, the original Wisconsin Territory, as established by statute on April 20, 1836, did not just include land from the original Northwest Territory. By the Act of April 20, 1836, 4 Stat. at Large 10, ...this part of the territory ceded by France, where Fort Snelling is, together with so much of the territory of the United States east of the Mississippi, was brought under a Territorial Government under the name of the Territory of Wisconsin. By the eighteenth section of this incorporation act, it was enacted: "That the inhabitants of this Territory shall be entitled to and enjoy all and singular the rights, privileges, and advantages, granted and secured to the people of the Territory of the United States northwest of the river Ohio, by the articles of compact contained in the ordinance for the government of said Territory, passed on the 13th day of July, 1787, and shall be subject to all the restrictions and prohibitions in said articles of compact imposed upon the people of the said Territory."' In 1833, Congress had annexed huge tracts of land west of the Mississippi to the then Michigan Territory. When the Wisconsin Territory was split off from the Michigan Territory, it inherited this western land. Thus, the 1836 Wisconsin Territory included all of the present-day states of Wisconsin, Minnesota, and Iowa, and that part of the Dakotas that lay east of the Missouri River. The portion of the Territory east of the Mississippi River had originally been part of the Northwest Territory, which had itself been included in the cession by Britain in the 1783. Most of the remaining land of the original Wisconsin Territory was originally part of the Louisiana Purchase, though a small fraction was part of a parcel ceded by Great Britain in 1818. This land west of the Mississippi had been split off from the Missouri Territory in 1821 and attached to the Michigan Territory in 1834. In 1838, the Iowa Territory was formed, reducing the Wisconsin Territory to the boundaries for the next ten years; upon granting statehood to Wisconsin, its boundaries were once again reduced, to their present location.
There are irregularities in the historical timeline at the outset of the Territory. After Congress refused Michigan's petition for statehood, despite meeting the requirements specified in the Northwest Ordinance, the people of Michigan authorized its constitution in October 1835 and began self-governance at that time. Yet, Michigan did not enter the Union until January 26, 1837, and Congress did not organize the Wisconsin Territory separately from Michigan until July 3, 1836.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Northwest Territory (1787)
Events leading to the U.S. Civil War Northwest Ordinance Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions Missouri Compromise Tariff of 1828 Nullification Crisis Nat Turner's slave rebellion The Amistad Prigg v. Pennsylvania Texas Annexation Mexican–American War Wilmot Proviso Ostend Manifesto Manifest destiny Underground Railroad Fugitive Slave Act of 1850 Compromise of 1850 Uncle Tom's Cabin Kansas–Nebraska Act Bleeding Kansas Sumner–Brooks affair Dred Scott v. Sandford The Impending Crisis of the South Brown's raid on Harper's Ferry 1860 presidential election Secession of Southern States Star of the West Corwin Amendment Battle of Fort Sumter
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The Northwest Ordinance (formally An Ordinance for the Government of the Territory of the United States, North-West of the River Ohio, and also known as the Freedom Ordinance or "The Ordinance of 1787") was an act of the Congress of the Confederation of the United States, passed July 13, 1787. The primary effect of the ordinance was the creation of the Northwest Territory, the first organized territory of the United States, from lands south of the Great Lakes, north and west of the Ohio River, and east of the Mississippi River.
On August 7, 1789, President George Washington signed the Northwest Ordinance of 1789 into law after the newly created U.S. Congress reaffirmed the Ordinance with slight modifications under the Constitution. The Ordinance purported to be not merely legislation that could later be amended by Congress, but rather "the following articles shall be considered as Articles of compact between the original States and the people and states in the said territory, and forever remain unalterable, unless by common consent...."
Arguably the single most important piece of legislation passed by members of the earlier Continental Congresses other than the Declaration of Independence, it established the precedent by which the federal government would be sovereign and expand westward across North America with the admission of new states, rather than with the expansion of existing states and their established sovereignty under the Articles of Confederation. It is the most important legislation that Congress has passed with regard to American public domain lands. The U.S. Supreme Court recognized the authority of the Northwest Ordinance of 1789 within the applicable Northwest Territory as constitutional in Strader v. Graham, 51 U.S. 82, 96, 97 (1851), but did not extend the Ordinance to cover the respective states once they were admitted to the Union.
The prohibition of slavery in the territory had the practical effect of establishing the Ohio River as the boundary between free and slave territory in the region between the Appalachian Mountains and the Mississippi River. This division helped set the stage for national competition over admitting free and slave states, the basis of a critical question in American politics in the 19th century until the Civil War.
Articles of Confederation
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Articles of Confederation
Page I of the Articles of Confederation
Created November 15, 1777
Ratified March 1, 1781
Location National Archives
Author(s) Continental Congress
Signatories Continental Congress
Purpose First constitution for the United States; replaced by the current United States Constitution on March 4, 1789
The Articles of Confederation, formally the Articles of Confederation and Perpetual Union, was an agreement among the 13 founding states that established the United States of America as a confederation of sovereign states and served as its first constitution. Its drafting by the Continental Congress began in mid-1776, and an approved version was sent to the states for ratification in late 1777. The formal ratification by all 13 states was completed in early 1781. Even when not yet ratified, the Articles provided domestic and international legitimacy for the Continental Congress to direct the American Revolutionary War, conduct diplomacy with Europe and deal with territorial issues and Indian relations. Nevertheless, the weak government created by the Articles became a matter of concern for key nationalists. On March 4, 1789, the Articles were replaced with the U.S. Constitution. The new Constitution provided for a much stronger national government with a chief executive (the president), courts, and taxing powers.
Background and context
The political push to increase cooperation among the then-loyal colonies began with the Albany Congress in 1754 and Benjamin Franklin's proposed intercolonial collaboration to help solve mutual local problems themselves; the Articles of Confederation would bear some resemblance to it. Over the next two decades, some of the basic concepts it addressed would strengthen and others would weaken, particularly the degree of deserved loyalty to the crown. With civil disobedience resulting in coercive and intolerable acts, and armed conflict resulting in dissidents being proclaimed rebels and outside the King's protection, any loyalty remaining shifted toward independence and how to achieve it. In 1775, with events outpacing communications, the Second Continental Congress began acting as the provisional government to run the American Revolutionary War and gain the colonies their collective independence.
Beyond improving their existing association, the records of the Second Continental Congress show that the need for a declaration of independence was intimately linked with the demands of international relations. On June 7, 1776, Richard Henry Lee tabled a resolution before the Continental Congress declaring the colonies independent; at the same time he also urged Congress to resolve “to take the most effectual measures for forming foreign Alliances” and to prepare a plan of confederation for the newly-independent states. Congress then created three overlapping committees to draft the Declaration, a Model Treaty, and the Articles of Confederation. The Declaration announced the states' entry into the international system; the model treaty was designed to establish amity and commerce with other states; and the Articles of Confederation, which established “a firm league” among the thirteen free and independent states, constituted an international agreement to set up central institutions for the conduct of vital domestic and foreign affairs.
Articles of Confederation 200th Anniversary commemorative stamp
First issued in York, Penn., 1977
On June 12, 1776, a day after appointing a committee to prepare a draft of the Declaration of Independence, the Second Continental Congress resolved to appoint a committee of 13 to prepare a draft of a constitution for a union of the states. The committee met repeatedly, and chairman John Dickinson presented their results to the Congress on July 12, 1776. There were long debates on such issues as sovereignty, the exact powers to be given the confederate government, whether to have a judiciary, and voting procedures. The final draft of the Articles was prepared in the summer of 1777 and the Second Continental Congress approved them for ratification by the individual states on November 15, 1777, after a year of debate. In practice, the Articles were in use beginning in 1777; the final draft of the Articles served as the de facto system of government used by the Congress ("the United States in Congress assembled") until it became de jure by final ratification on March 1, 1781; at which point Congress became the Congress of the Confederation. Under the Articles, the states retained sovereignty over all governmental functions not specifically relinquished to the national government. The individual articles set the rules for current and future operations of the United States government.